The maths of India

Pataliputra was the birth-place of another very great man, namely, Aryabhata, the father of scientific astronomy and mathematics of the Hindus. He was born in 476 A D. and wrote his Kala-kriya (calculation of time) here at the age of 23 that is, 499 A.D.

The consonants from kato ma are valued at 1 to 25 and the eight vowels i, u, r, e,1, ai, o, ou represent multiples of 100 each. Thus ka is 1, kiis 100, ku is 10,000, kr is 10,00,000, kl is 10,00,00,000, keis 10,00,00,00,000, kai is 10,00,00,00,00,000. This is a modified form of the Greek System. One of Aryabhata's works is called DaSagZtikti from the fact that it consists of ten verses in the Gitika metre which is a modification of the Arya. His other work, the Aryasiddhantika, consists of 108 verses and is divided in three sectionsKalakriyapada, Golapada and Ganitapada In these two works the extent of which does not jointly go beyond 118 verses, Aryabhata has explained the whole system of Hindu Astronomy. He is even more concise than the philosophical sutras and is in strange contrast with the astronomical Siddhantas which seem to have been written in prose and are very diffuse.

There seem to have been a conflict of Eras at the time when Aryabhata flourished. There was the Malava Era in Western Malwa, the Gupta Era known in the Gupta Empire, the Saka Era, the Kalacuri Era and soon all local and tribal eras. Not knowing in which to date his works which was meant for universal use among the Hindus he took up the Kaliyuga Era known to all.

But in subsequent ages the Saka Era was adopted by all astronomers in India. The reason is not far to seek for in India astronomy and astrology were, if not exclusively, very generally studied and professed by the Sakadvipi Brahmins or Scythian priesthood the old Magii settled in India from remote ages, or neither the Brahmins or the Buddhists favoured astrologers. Buddha has expressly excluded Astrology from Samyak Ajiva or proper livelihood.
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